THE CULTURE OF BATAK TRIBE

HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF BATAK TRIBE | Batak tribe of North Sumatra. Area of origin is known as the residence of the Batak Karo Mainland High, Kangkat Hulu, Hulu Deli, Serdang Hulu, Simalungun, Toba, Mandailing and Central Tapanuli. The area is traversed by a series of Bukit Barisan in the region of North Sumatra, and there is a large lake called Lake Toba the Batak people. Judging from the administrative area, they inhabit the several district or this part of North Sumatra. Karo Regency ie, Simalungun, Dairi, North Tapanuli, and Asahan.

HISTORY

Batak kingdom was founded by a King in the country Toba sila-silahi (Silalahi) lua 'Baligi (Luat Balige), Parsoluhan village, tribe Pohan. The king in question is named Raja Alang Pardoksi magic power (Pardosi). Heyday Batak kingdom led by a king named. Sultan Maharaja in 1054 Hijri Bongsu managed to prosper the country with its political policies. 



CULTURAL ELEMENTS

A. Language
In the life and daily life, the Batak people use some accent, is: (1) Slang used by Karo Karo, (2) Slang used by Pakpak Pakpak, (3) Slang used by Simalungun Simalungun; (4) Slang used by people Toba Toba, Angkola and Mandailing.

B. Knowledge

Batak people are also familiar with the ancient system of mutual assistance in farming. In the language it is called Raron Karo activity, whereas in the Toba language it is called Marsiurupan. A group of neighbors or close relatives of people together to work the land and each member in turn. Raron it is an institution whose membership is voluntary and the long standing agreement depends on the participants.

C. Technology
Batak society has come to know and use simple equipment used to grow crops in their lives. Such as hoes, plow (plow in Karo), single stick (crank in Karo), sickle (Sabi-Sabi) or ani-ani. Batak society also have the traditional weapons, piso surit (a type of dagger), piso elephant densely packed (a keris that long), hujur (a type of spear), podang (a type of long sword). Other technological elements yaitukain ulos which is woven fabric that has many functions in the life of traditional Batak.

D. Social Organizations

a. Marriage
In the tradition of Batak tribes one can only marry with the Batak people of different clans, so if one is married he should seek a mate from another clan other than his clan. If the marriage is someone who is not from the Batak tribe, he has to be adopted by one of the Batak clan (different clans). The event was followed by a procession of marriages performed in churches because the majority of the population is Christian Batak. For marriage dowries and sisters of the bride is already married.

b. Kinship
Kinship groups Batak tribes living in rural areas called Huta or Kuta under the terms of Karo. Usually one Huta inhabited by the family of a kin group marga.Ada also called clans taneh namely the descendants of the founder of Kuta pariteral. Marga is bound by certain symbols such as clan name. The little clan is patrilineal relatives who still resides in one area. Conversely a large clan whose members live scattered so many sdah not know each other but they can recognize members by name of the clan that always came behind her first name, social stratification of the Batak people is based on four principles: (a) tigkat differences in age, (b) differences in rank and positions, (c) differences in the nature of authenticity and (d) marital status.

E. Livelihood
In general, people hobo rice cultivation in paddies and fields. Obtained from the division of land based clan. Each kelurga mandapat but the land is not allowed to sell it. In addition to lands owned land as for individuals.


Farms is also one of Batak tribe of livelihood among other buffalo farms, cows, pigs, goats, chickens, and ducks. Catching fish is done most of the population around Lake Toba. Craft sector is also growing. For example weaving, woven rattan, wood carving, temmbikar, there kaitanya with tourism.

F. Religion
In the 19th century the religion of Islam into the area south hobo penyebaranya covers. Christianity came in about the year 1863 and includes the hobo penyebaranya north. D emikian Although many rural communities hobo who was the original concept of religion pendduk mmpertahankan hobo. Batak people have the conception that the universe and its contents were created by Debeta Na Mula So Balloons and resides in the sky and have the names in accordance with the duties and kedudukanya. At Debeta So Na Balloon: residing in the heavens and is the almighty creator; Siloan Na Balom: located as ruler of the world of spirits. In conjunction with the spirits and souls of the hobo know three concepts namely: Tondi: the soul or spirit; Sahala: the soul or spirit of one's own strength; Begu: Tondinya dead. Batak people also believe in the magic powers of amulets called Tongkal.

G. Art
Dance Dance ie Tor-tor (magical); Dance serampang twelve (nature of entertainment). Traditional Musical Instruments: Gong; Saga-saga. Results from the tribe of Batak weaving craft is ulos cloth. The fabric is always displayed in the ceremony of marriage, establishing homes, funeral ceremony, transfer of the estate, welcomed the honored guests and dancing ceremonies Tor-tor. Custom fabric in accordance with an inherited belief system ancestors.

CULTURAL VALUES
1. Kinship
Batak society kinship values? embodied primarily in the implementation of custom Dalian Na Talu, where one must find a mate outside their group, people in one group are called Sabutuha (brothers), to the group that received the girl to diperistri called Hula-hula. The group that gives a girl called Boru.

2. Hagabeon
Significant cultural value long life expectancy, birth, bercucu a lot, and that is fine.

3. Hamoraan
Batak tribe that honors the value lies in the balance of the spiritual aspects and meterial.

4. Uhum and ugari
Uhum value reflected on the seriousness of the Batak people in upholding justice while ugari seen in fidelity to a promise.

5. Aegis
Aegis of the community must be given to the environment, the task entailed by the three elements in Dalihan Na Tolu.

6. Marsisarian
A value means mutual understanding, respect, and help each other.

ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

Development aspects of the Batak tribe of the entry of the school system and the emergence of an opportunity to gain social prestige. The occurrence of kinship networks are based on peoples can work well. Indigenous itself for the Batak people is sacred. Forgetting peoples are considered extremely dangerous.

Recognition of blood ties and marriage ties strengthen rope in everyday life. Mutual help between relatives in world trade and in the middle of the field of modern city life commonly seen among the Batak people. Tightness of kinship networks that surround them that gives them tremendous resilience in responding to the challenges of this century.

REFERENCES:
Hidayah, Zuliyani
1997 Encyclopedia of Ethnic Groups in Indonesia. New York: LP3ES Koentjaraningrat
1971 Man and culture in Indonesia. New York: Djambatan Melalatoa, M. Junus
1997 Encyclopedia of Ethnic Groups in Indonesia. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and culture

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